Chart: 6 zoonoses you should know -- Hookworm infection
Common disease name
Dogs: Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma braziliense, Uncinaria stenocephala
Cats: Ancylostoma tubaeformis, Ancylostoma braziliense, Uncinaria stenocephala
All: Ingestion of larvae from feces, skin penetration
Puppies and kittens: Transmammary
People: Skin penetration with larva in infected soil (Ancylostoma species); causes cutaneous larva migrans
Puppies: Anemia and pale mucous membranes, ill thrift, failure to gain weight, poor hair coat, dehydration, and dark and tarry diarrhea (melena)
Adult dogs: Few signs if well-nourished and immunocompetent; often source of infection in pups; in cases of higher worm load, could cause anemia, anorexia, emaciation, and weakness, along with black and tarry diarrhea. These are also more likely to occur with malnutrition and stress.
Kittens and adult cats: Can cause anemia, diarrhea, and weight loss in kittens; large numbers can be fatal.
Puppies and kittens: Respiratory disease and pneumonia may occur when large numbers of larvae migrate through the lungs.
All: Penetration of larval hookworm occasionally causes a dermatitis with erythema, pruritus, and papules. These are most commonly seen on the animal’s feet, particularly in the interdigital spaces.
People: Red, itchy, serpentine lesions on the skin
Pyrantel pamoate (dogs), fenbendazole (dogs), moxidectin (dogs), milbemycin oxime (dogs and cats), emodepside/praziquantel (cats), selamectin (cats); in all severely infected animals, anthelmintic treatment must be combined with supportive therapy to keep the animal alive until the drugs can kill the worms.
Farmers, gardeners, landscapers, sunbathers lying on sand, plumbers, electricians, exterminators, and children playing in potentially contaminated areas